Agricultural times - 10.000 years  19th century


Evolution or Revolution ?

La maison rustique, june 1853
La Maison Rustique
Cover page dated 1853

In Europe from the beginning of the 16th century, industrial and commercial liberal capitalism (def.) arose while feudalism (def.) declined. Its development was accompanied by cultural changes and new ways of thinking inspired by the Renaissance, the Reformation, and the scientific progress of the 17th century. In the 18th century, the "Philosophy of the Enlightenment" confirms faith in man, reason, and progress.


La maison rustique, june 1854
La Maison Rustique
Cover page dated 1854

A New Agriculture (def.) starts in the Netherlands then is adopted in England.  In France, physiocrats, economists, and agronomists invent the theory of a "New Agriculture" which states that more forage = more cattle = more manure = more cereals.

The Industrial Revolution results from a series of inventions in metallurgy and the textile industry. King Cotton (def.) plays a major role in this development. Social changes grow out of revolutions and reforms, which reach their apogee in the French Revolution. A long-lasting economic growth is born from all these revolutions and brings mass consumption (def.) to Europe.

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